Laboratory of Ann Hirsch


Sweetclover Mutants


 

 

(Genes Affecting Symbiotic Phenotypes)

Allele

Description

Reference

Sym1
sym1

Nod+
Hac-, Inf-, Nod+/-

Miller et al., 1991; Utrup et al., 1993

Sym2
sym2

Nod+
Hac+, Inf+, Nod+/-

Miller et al., 1991; Utrup et al., 1993

Sym3
sym3

Nod+
Hac-, Inf-, Nod-

Miller et al., 1991; Utrup et al., 1993

Sym4
sym4

Nod+
Hac+, Inf+, Nod+/-

Miller et al., 1991; Utrup et al., 1993

Sym5
sym5

Nod+
Hac-, Inf-, Nod+/-

Miller et al., 1991; Utrup et al., 1993

References

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(Genes Affecting  Non-Symbiotic Phenotypes)

(Based on a Table from  Smith and Gorz, 1965)

Allele

Description

Reference

A
a

Annual Growth Habit
Biennial Growth Habit

Smith, 1927; Clarke, 1935; Stevenson and White, 1937

B
b

b-glucosidase  activity
no b-glucosidase activity

Stevenson and White, 1940; Horner and White, 1941;  Slatensek and Washburn, 1944; Goplen et al., 1957; Schaeffer et al.,  1960; Haskins and Gorz, 1961; Gilchrist et al., 1970.

Bd
bd

Normal plant
Bunched dwarf (from Arctic)

Kirk, 1931; Clarke, 1931; Hartwig, 1942 (as d2)

C
c

Normal leaf
Cup leaf

Hartwig, 1942

C
c

Color in seed coat
Lack of color in seed coat

Fowlds, 1939; Hartwig, 1942 (as I); Swenson,  1942; Specht et al., 1976

Cb
cb

Normal plant
Cotyledonary branching

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1969

Ch1, Ch2, Ch3
ch1, ch2, ch3

Normal green plant

Chlorophyll-deficient plant

Bringhurst, 1950

Ch4, Ch6,  Ch7
ch4, ch6, ch7

Normal green plant

Chlorophyll-deficient plant

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1970;  Specht et al., 1975; Yang et al., 1990

Ch5
ch5

Normal green plant
Chlorophyll-deficient plant

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1970;  Ronnenkamp et al., 1975; Specht et al., 1975; Yang et al., 1990

Ch8-12
ch8-12

Normal green plant
Chlorophyll-deficient plant

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Ronnenkamp et al., 1975;  Specht et al., 1975; Yang et al., 1990

Chv
chv

Normal veins
Dark veins

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1970;  Ronnenkamp et al., 1975; Specht et al., 1975; Yang et al., 1990

Cl
cl

Normal leaf
Curled leaf

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1969

Cu
cu

High coumarin
Low coumarin

Smith, 1943; Goplen et al., 1957; Rudorf and  Schwarze, 1958; Haskins and Gorz, 1961; Micke, 1962; Akeson et al.,  1963

D
d

Normal plant
Dwarf (from Common White)

Elders, 1928

D3
d3

Normal plant
Dwarf (from So. Dakota, F.C. 13,074)

Fowlds, 1939, Hartwig, 1942

D4
d4

Normal plant
Dwarf (from P.I. 89,911)

Hartwig, 1942

Dsp
dsp

Normal leaf
Short-petiole dwarf

Ronnenkamp et al., 1973

Dw
dw

Normal plant
Dwarf plant

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1969

E
e

Epistatic to G (resistant)
No action on G

Gorz, 1955

El
el

Normal stem
Elongated internodes and reduced branching and leaf production

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Ronnenkamp et al., 1973

F
f

Normal leaflet
Folded leaflet

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Ronnenkamp et al., 1973

G
g

Susceptible to stem canker
Resistance to stem canker

Gorz, 1955

Mf
mf

Multifoliolate leaves
Normal leaves

Kleinhofs et al., 1968; Gengenbach et al., 1969

Pc
pc
Green cotyledons
Pale green cotyledons; single recessive
Goplen, 1969

Pg1, Pg2
pg1 or pg2

Normal green plant
Pale green plant

Clarke, 1931

Ru
ru

Normal plant
Rugose leaf, pleiotropy

Goplen, 1962

Sd
sd

Normal plant
Spreading dwarf (from Arctic)

Kirk, 1931; Clarke, 1931; Stevenson, 1937; Hartwig,  1942 (as d1)

Un

un
Trifoliate leaves, normal inflorescence

Predominantly unifoliata leaves; cauliflower-like inflorescence
Goplen, 1967

Ws
ws

Green sepal
White sepal

Goplen, 1992

Y

y

Yellow cotyledon; yellow seed coat with C
Green cotyledon; green seed coat with C

Fowlds, 1939; Hartwig, 1942, Swenson, 1942; Gorz et  al., 1975


-

Normal seed coat
Brownish sunken spots on seed coat, permeable (recessive)

Stevenson, 1937; White and Stevenson, 1948; Downey et  al., 1954

-
-

Mottled seed coat (dominant)
Clear seed coat

Kirk and Stevenson, 1931; Stevenson, 1937

-
-

Normal leaf
Cut leaf, pleiotropy (recessive)

Kirk and Armstrong, 1934

References

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Not Completely  Characterized Sweetclover

Mutants

Designation (Author)

Type  of Mutant

Phenotype

BT9 (LaRue)

EMS

Antho-, dark seed

BT19 (LaRue)

EMS

Antho-

BT20 (LaRue)

EMS

Antho-

BT25 (LaRue)

g -irradiation

late nodulation, small roots

BT26 (LaRue)

g -irradiation

Antho-, tall, small roots, few laterals

BT52 (LaRue)

EMS

Antho-

BT60 (LaRue)

EMS

few laterals

BT65 (LaRue)

Nitroso ethyl urea

Nod+, Lut-, Antho-,  pale seed

BT67 (LaRue)

Nitroso methyl urea

Late nod, small roots, leaves slow to green

R567 (LaRue and Hirsch)

g -irradiation

Nod+, Fix-

Mi58-367  "unifoliata-type" (Micke)

X-rays

Sessile  oval leaf consisting of a single leaflet, cauliflower-like flower;  similar to a spontaneous mutant (Goplen, 1967).

Mi61-2175  "unifoliata-type" (Micke)

neutron bombardment and X-rays

Ginkgo-shaped leaves, normal petioles,  sterile.

Mi61-1921  "tristata" (Micke)

thermal neutrons

Enlarged, wrinkled leaves, drooping petioles, sterile;  similar to rugose mutant (Goplen, 1962).

Mi66-1007  "loose flowers" (Micke)

fast neutrons

Funnel-shaped leaflets, stamens with separate filaments,  two pistils.

Mi56-422  "tortuosa" (Micke)

X-rays

Curved  stems and petioles, fertile.

 

 

 

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Dr. A. Micke's Mutants

A.MICKE, Vienna (Austria)

Induced Mutants of Sweetclover (Melilotus albus Desr.) as published between 1955 and 1976.

(from mutation breeding programmes at the Universities of Giessen and Göttingen, FRG; 1953-1969)

 

ID-Nr. of mutant

Origin. parent

Mutagen-treatment

Year of mutant selection

 

Mutant description, main mutant character(s)

Inheritance of mut. character

References

 

populat.

x-rays 1953-55

M2 1954-56

51 albina and xantha mutations, lethal (heterozygous plants green and fertile)

recessive

MICKE 1955: Tab.13
MICKE 1958: p.426

 

 

Mi 54-8

populat.

x-rays 1953

 

M2 1954

often more than 3 leaflets per leaf

segreg. 9:52

MICKE 1955: Tab.13

Mi 54-12

 

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

dwarf plants (only 2-4 cm high), with flower buds but no flowers developing

 

segreg. 4:49

MICKE 1955: Fig.40
MICKE 1958: p.427, Fig.6

Mi 54-31

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

chlorina, semi-dwarf (25-40 cm) and semi-sterile

 

segreg. 9:74

MICKE 1955: Fig.48
MICKE 1958: p.426

Mi 54-60

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

prostrate growth, shoots horizontal on the ground, forming a 150-180 cm circle, shoot ends upward (bw photo)

 

segreg. 5:11

MICKE 1955: Fig.46,47
MICKE 1958: p.427

Mi 54-123

 

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

xantha-viridis

segreg. 12:19

MICKE 1958: p.427

Mi 54-152

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

no shoots, longer stipels,
plants only up to 10 cm high (bw photos)

 

segreg. 5:16

MICKE 1955: Fig.41-44
MICKE 1958: p.428, Fig.7-9

Mi 54-206

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

albina

segreg. 10:39

MICKE 1958: p.426

Mi 54-208

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

virescens: green cotyledons but chlorophyll-deficient
primary leaf; later leaves green

 

segreg. 6:39

MICKE 1955: Tab.13

Mi 54-222

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

virescens: seedlings light green or yellow,
later leaves green

segreg. 6:36

Micke 1955: Tab.13

Mi 54-230

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

chlorina

segreg. 3:4

MICKE 1955: Tab.13

Mi 54-241

 

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

often less than 3 leaflets per leaf

segreg. 13:14

MICKE 1955: Tab.13

Mi 54-282

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

xantha-viridis, seedl. light green, lateron leaves
green with yellowing border (bw photo)

 

 

segreg. 8:23

MICKE 1955: Tab.13, Fig.49
MICKE 1958: p.47, Fig.5

Mi 54-308

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

semi-dwarf (20-25 cm) with light green succulent
leaves, short internodes, no flowers (bw photos)

 

segreg. 3:8

MICKE 1955: Fig.45
MICKE 1958: p.427

Mi 54-329

populat.

x-rays 1953

M2 1954

albina (lethal); heterozygous yellow-green plants
ca.130 cm, segregate for other mutations in
later generations

 

 

intermediate inheritance

segreg. 38:104:53

MICKE 1958: p.426, Tab.4

 

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956

stiff shrubby type, only 65-90 vs.100-120cm
shorter internodes, larger and thicker leaves

 

 

segreg. 6:20

MICKE 1958: p.429, Fig.10

Mi 56-16

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956

61% water permeable seeds

 

 

MICKE 1958: p.431

Mi 56-70

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956

up to 85% water permeable seeds (instead of 15-25%)

 

quantitat.segregation

6 of 27 more than 50% perm.

 

MICKE 1958: p.431, Fig.13

 

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956

5 other mutations for reduced impermeability

 

 

MICKE 1958: p.431

Mi 56-252

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956

bush-type (loss of apical dominance)
highly branched, leafy (bw photos)

 

segreg.38:125

MICKE 1958: p.429-30, Tab.5, Fig.11-12
MICKE 1962b: p.2

Mi 56-422

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956

tortuosa with bent shoots, leaves and
inflorescences (bw & color photos)

 

 

monomer recessive

RÖMER 1973: p.423, St.1

Mi 56-676

St.148

x-rays 1955

M2 1956
(M3 seeds)

 

100% water permeable seed coat, lower TGW,
darker reddish-brown seed color (bw photos)

recessive

MICKE 1962/63: p.356-7
SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.233, Fig.3

Mi 57-75

St.148

x-rays 1956

M2 1957

dwarf plants (15-20 cm), small dark leaves, no
flowers,"low coumarin content",not increasing
by air drying (hay), lacks glucosidase

 

segreg. 14:67

MICKE 1958: p.427, 432

Mi 58-266

St.148

x-rays 1957

M2 1958

grey-green, lancet-type, non-dentate leaflets
(bw photos)

 

segreg. 3:43

RÖMER 1973: p.324, St.2

Mi 58-367

St.148

x-rays 1957

M2 1958

unifoliata I, normal shaped but sessile leaflets
(no petioles), malformed sterile flowers like
cauliflower (bw & color photos)

 

segreg. 2:57

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.233, Fig.2b (center)

Mi 58-557

St.148

x-rays 1957

M2 1958

sharply dentate, oval, dark green leaves (bw photo)

 

segreg. 3:21

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.3

Mi 58-657

St.148

x-rays 1957

M2 1958

waxless, small dark green leaves,
borders wavelike bent

 

segreg. 3:27

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.4

Mi 59-69

St.148

x-rays 1957
veget.propag. -1958

M2 1959

small, strongly dentate leaflets, densely branched,
long petioles (bw photos)

 

segreg. 1:20

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.10

Mi 59-106

St.148

x-rays 1957
veget.propag. -1958

M2 1959

large leaves, long petioles, main branches more
vertical, close to main stem

 

 

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.16

Mi 59-127a

St.148

x-rays 1957
veget.propag. -1958

M2 1959

oak-type leaves (pinnately lobed), viridis, bushy
(bw photos)

 

segreg. 7:45

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.11

Mi 59-834a

St.148

thN + x-rays +
colchicine 1958

M2 1959

viridis, reverse eggshape leaflets,
horizontal shoots

 

segreg. 1:13

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.5

Mi 59-1199

St.148

thN + colchicine 1958

M2 1959

chlorina, smaller plant, very small leaves
(bw photos)

 

segreg. 3:11

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.6

Mi 59-1199a

St.148

thN + colchicine 1958

M2 1959

very small, non-dentate, dark green leaflets with
partly yellowish borders

 

 

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.7

Mi 59-1324

St.148

thN + colchicine 1958

M2 1959

strongly dentate leaflets, irregular nodes, some
leaflets within inflorescences (bw photos)

 

segreg. 1:12

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.8

Mi 59-1379

St.148

thN + colchicine 1958

M2 1959

long branches and inflorescences, short petioles

 

 

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.14

Mi 59-1488

St.148

thN + x-rays+
colchicine 1958

M2 1959

dark green thicker leaves, irregular unifoliata, no
flowers; heterozygote normal flowers (bw photos)

 

segreg. 4:35

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.232, Fig.1b

Mi 59-1599

St.148

thN + x-rays +
colchicine 1958

M2 1959

bushy type, highly branched, but with some
dominance of the main shoot

 

segreg. 5:9

RÖMER 1973: p.325, St.9

Mi 60-2525

St.148

 

M3 1960

unifoliata III: normal oval shaped, sessile leaflets,
normal flowers (bw photo)

 

 

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.232, Fig.1a (left)

Mi 61-44

St.148

1959/60

M2 1961

partially unifoliata, often incomplete separation
of leaflets (pinnately lobed) (bw photos)

 

segreg. 15:30

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.232, Fig.1d

Mi 61-65/1

St.148

thN 1959/60

M2 1961

glucoside content reduced to 1/100, but very
high glucosidase activity, self-incompatible,
only 50% fertile pollen (bw photos)

 

segreg. 1:43
inherited monomer recessive

MICKE 1962a
MICKE 1962/63: p.356
MICKE 1969: p.541-50, Tab.1-5, Fig.1
MICKE 1976: Tab.2 and 3
SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.235
SCHÖN 1966

Mi 61-654

St.148

thN 1959 +
x-rays 1960

M2 1961

unifoliata IIa: leaflets with petioles, no flowers
(bw photo)

 

segreg. 5:15

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.232, Fig.1c

Mi 61-716

St.148

thN 1959 +
x-rays 1960

M 2 1961

lacks glucosidase activity

 

 

 

SCHÖN 1966

Mi 61-1835

St.148

thN 1959/60

M2 1961

unifoliata II: leaflets with petioles, "filled" flowers with many petals, rose like, sterile (bw photos)

 

 

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.233, Fig.2c

Mi 62-1353

St.148

thN 1959/60

M3 1962

non-bitter (reduced coumarin content)

 

 

segreg. 1(0.0%) : 12(0,2-0,7%) :

10(1,3-3,6%)

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.235, Tab.1
MICKE 1969: p.548, Fig 1
MICKE 1976: Tab.2

Mi 62-1758

St.148

thN + x-rays 1959/60

M3 1962

non-bitter (reduced coumarin content)

 

 

segreg. 1(0,03%) : 4(1-3%)

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.235, Tab.1
MICKE 1976: Tab.2

Mi 62-1847

St.148

thN + x-rays 1959/60

M3 1962

non-bitter (reduced coumarin content)

 

 

segreg. 4(0,05-0,07%) :
12(1,1-4,8%)

MICKE 1969: p.542, Tab.1, Fig.1
MICKE 1976: Tab.2

Mi 62-1849

St.148

thN + x-rays 1959/60

M3-1962

non-bitter (reduced coumarin content and altered glucosidase activity)

 

 

segreg. 3(0,03-0,06%) :
6(0,3-0,7%) : 5(1,7-4,9%)

SCHEIBE and MICKE 1967: p.235, Tab1

 

 

References

MICKE, A. (1955) Die Auswirkungen einer Röntgenbestrahlung lufttrockener Samen von Melilotus albus Desr. auf die Bestrahlungsgeneration und deren Nachkommenschaften Dissertation. Universität Giessen, 1955.

MICKE, A. (1958) Mutationszüchtung beim weißen Steinklee (Melilotus albus) mit Hilfe von Röntgenstrahlen. Z.Pflanzenzüchtung 38,419-437.

MICKE, A. (1962a) Eine bitterstoffreie Mutante bei Melilotus albus nach Bestrahlung von Samen mit thermischen Neutronen. Naturwiss. 49, 332.

MICKE, A. (1962b) Genetische Untersuchungen beim weißen Steinklee (Melilotus albus). I. Über die Vererbung der Fähigkeit zur Bildung von Cumarinsäureglykosid. Z.Pflanzenzüchtung 48, 1-13.

MICKE, A. (1962/63) Genetisch-züchterische Arbeiten beim weißen Steinklee. Z.Acker- und Pflanzenbau 116, 354-360.

MICKE, A. (1969) Improvement of low yielding sweet clover mutants by heterosis breeding. In: Induced Mutations in Plants. Proc.of FAO/IAEA Symposium, Pullman (USA). IAEA, Vienna. p.541-550.

MICKE, A. (1976) Hybrid vigour in mutant crosses - Prospects and problems of exploitation studied with mutants of sweet clover. In: Induced Mutations in Crossbreeding. Proc.of FAO/IAEA Advisory Group, Vienna (Austria) 1975. IAEA, Vienna. p.199-218.

SCHEIBE, A. and A.MICKE (1967) Experimentally induced mutations in leguminous forage plants and their agronomic value. In: Induced Mutations and their Utilization. Proc. Erwin-Baur-Gedächtnisvorlesungen IV, Gatersleben (Germany) 1966. Akademie-Verlag Berlin. p.231-236

SCHÖN,W.J. (1966) Über die stereospezifische beta-Glucosidase in bitterstoffreien Mutanten bei Melilotus albus. Angewandte Botanik 40,38-54.

RÖMER, F.W. (1973) Heterosis und Kombinationseignung in diallelen Kreuzungen von strahleninduzierten Steinklee-Mutanten. Z.Pflanzenzüchtung 70, 323-348.